An Algorithm for Creating and Selecting Graph Axes

For an arbitrary set of data points, what’s the ‘best’ graph axis for those points? Say that your x-variable runs from 5 to 45. A human can quickly pick a few promising options for the x-axis. It could have ticks at 0, 15, 30, and 45. Or perhaps 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50. Getting a program to generate ‘nice’ options like this is a bit trickier. I’ve been working on a graphing app recently and I’ve reproduced my solution, with notes, below.


Although there are a number of algorithms people have put forth on Stack Overflow and elsewhere, many of these do not handle certain kinds of data sets correctly, and virtually none treat 0 correctly in my opinion. I started from scratch with the following 5 rules for my function:

  • If an axis crosses 0, 0 *must* be an axis tick value
  • Axis ticks *must* be attached to a grid line (i.e. you can’t have x-axis ticks floating in space – they must be attached to a y-axis grid line as you see in the example above)
  • The data should be as tightly contained as possible (little wasted space)
  • There should be no fewer than 4 ticks on each axis, and if rule 2 requires it, up to 10
  • Numbers should be ‘nice’ (round numbers etc.)

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